By Cherng-ju Kim
Discussing accomplished variety of issues, complicated Pharmaceutics: Physicochemical ideas studies all points of actual pharmacy. The ebook explains the elemental, mechanistic, and quantitative interpretation abilities had to resolve actual pharmacy comparable difficulties. the writer offers a robust primary heritage and generally covers thermodynamics, ionic equilibria, ideas and distribution, floor chemistry and colloids, kinetics, diffusion, and polymer technology. He outlines the most recent learn on diffusion via a membrane and using polymers in dosage forms.Packed with formulae and types, the ebook demonstrates the advance of every after which describes using these types for numerous formula occasions. The author's distinct clarification of the evolution of the formulae offers a transparent knowing of while and the way they're used. This bottom-up technique delineates the evolution of the formulae and offers a transparent figuring out of whilst and the way they need to be used. The ebook offers an in-depth overview and research of dosage shape layout standards so you might swiftly enforce on your daily paintings.
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Extra resources for Advanced Pharmaceutics Physicochemical Principles
C a >> [H + ] − [OH − ] ). 19) One may decide which equations should be used to calculate the concentration of H+. In general, one should proceed with the calculation from the simplest one to the most difficult one. 06 × 10 −3 at 25°C. Solution First, assume C a >> [H + ] . 26 × 10 −3 M Now, check the assumption of Ca >> [H + ]. How do we define >> (or “much greater than”)? Generally speaking, if the concentration of H+ is smaller than 5% of Ca , one can use >>. 326 The assumption ( C a >> [H + ] ) is not a valid one.
O. , Ionic Reactions and Equilibria, MacMillan, New York, 1967, Chapters 5 and 6. 10. J. M. Smith and H. C. , McGraw-Hill, New York, 1975, Chapters 2–5. 11. I. , K. Sauer, and J. C. , Prentice Hall, NJ, 1995, Chapters 1–5. 12. V. R. Williams, W. L. Mattrice, and H. B. , W. H. , San Francisco, 1978, Chapters 1–3. PROBLEMS 1. Calculate the work done when a drop of ice (1 µm) evaporates to water at 0°C and 1 atm. 915 g/cm3, respectively. 2. Hot air at 50°C is blown through 50 kg of a cold metal solid that has been cooled to −10°C.
6 × 10−6? Solution First, assume that C b >> [OH − ]. 05. The assumption is valid. 10). 4 ). 2. 1. 1. 77 × 10−3 M, respectively. 2 ). 9) for acetic acid and benzoic acid into the above equation yields: [H + ] = K C AA K AA C BA K BA + + w [H + ] + K AA [H + ] + K BA [H + ] where the subscripts AA and BA denote acetic acid and benzoic acid, respectively. The above equation is solved by iteration (trial and error). However, [OH − ] is very small compared to other terms and can be neglected. 7. 34 yields the same [H + ].